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   Pêche Artisanale

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The need to improve knowledge about the artisanal fisheries in the Mediterranean has been underlined in many occasions. This sector encompasses many fishing gears and methods, its resources, shared among various parties, move from one region to another, and the size of the fish catch varies from country to country, as does its economical value. Only a management of these fisheries and the resources they exploit, including the other economic components in the same area, will enable modern and effective management. 

Information on the artisanal fishery and interacting activities such as tourism or marine protected areas is fundamental for planning and management purposes. It is, therefore, extremely important to document all the elements in related sectors, which interact directly or indirectly with artisanal fisheries, and describe synergies, conflicts or friction and possible interaction and connection.

The Copemed Project, through its initiatives, offered the possibility of starting a program of work to study this sector in depth in its area of competence (Algeria, France, Italy, Libya, Malta, Morocco, Spain, and Tunisia).

This programme is being undertaken using national experts as much as possible with the aim of increasing national competence under the co-ordination of, and in consultation with, an international team covering distinct subjects (statistics, biology, economics, management), which is responsible for providing the main direction and guidelines. The team is provided by the project FAO-Copemed as necessary.

We present here below the main activities carried out as well as results obtained. The methods and results will be put at the disposal of all participating country administrations as well as of the various institutes and laboratories in the Region. The status of this work will be submitted regularly to the Scientific Advisory Committee (SAC) of the General Fisheries Commission for the Mediterranean (GFCM).

Objectives and work plan

The original work plan of this COPEMED program aimed the revision of the artisanal fisheries statistics produced by all countries in the Copemed area (Alicante, December 1997).

A workshop was organized (Malta, March 1998). National reports as well as communications concerning studies undertaken in this field were presented. The conclusion of this  meeting  pointed out the needs to establish a preliminary inventory survey all the artisanal fisheries communities in the region. A new work plan was formulated based on the main following steps:


Definition of artisanal fisheries in COPEMED region

The "métiers"

The word métier corresponds to a combination gear, target species, fishing geographic zone. It is a pragmatic definition to give answer to the need of study of the management systems defined using the traditional knowledge. Temporal dimension is underlying through the seasonal nature brought on by the couple target species x zone.

"Metier" notion enables to better define the effective effort implemented on a resource and it leads to a fleets distribution bearing in mind the strategies, the usages and the fishermen knowledge. It allows to identify more operational management units.

The "artisanal Fisheries"

The different countries apply diverse criteria in their attempt to characterize artisanal fisheries, a task in which they refer back to several notions, namely, boat size, fishing traditions, type of "métiers", socio-economic environment, etc. In these conditions, some "métiers" that are a part of artisanal fisheries in one country are however excluded in another.

A comparative analysis of the definition of artisanal fisheries in each country shows that three criteria are the most commonly used: length, gross tonnage and fishing gears/target species. In fact, this last criterion helps the most to characterize what is not included in artisanal fisheries.

Bearing in mind COPEMED needs, a group of national experts agreed during a first workshop (Malta, March 1998) on the type of "métiers" to be considered when talking about artisanal fisheries. This definition comes in fact from the exclusion of what is not included in artisanal fisheries. Therefore, all methods are included in artisanal fisheries only excluding those implemented using the following gears:

Remarks :

To be noted that all lamparo fishing is included in artisanal fishery. "Lamparo" fishing, usually targeting a group of species that can be identified as small pelagic, should not normally be included in artisanal fisheries. In Italy, however, where this fishing technique is widespread, it is used by big-sized units as well as by many little boats, occasionally with a single fisherman. This is clearly a typical example of artisanal fishery. As it is not possible to separate the artisanal lamparo fishery from the other, we have decided to include both of them in the artisanal fisheries of every country. Spain made a remark on the possible problems that this could bring about concerning boats that during one part of the year are equipped with lamparo for fisheries in the north of Spain

This classification is based on the fishing gear. Consequently, a boat will be taken into account or not depending on the gear it uses.

Inventory of artisanal fishery Communities
  1. Data collected

Ports, landing places or any other localities where an activity defined as «Artisanal Fishery» is present. The information collected is:

Description of each métier, by port:

The standard nomenclature for species name is the FAO one. No other classification can be allowed. The national experts are requested to collect this information, and add to the FAO denominations the national name used for that species. This will improve the internal data dictionary, will contribute to the completion of the Encyclopaedia of the species in the Mediterranean and the FAO nomenclatorial species database.

Reporting and classification of fishing zones greatly reflects the database solution for the storing of the data. It was firstly decided to use a three key code that indicates the geographical name of the zone (port, golf, bank, laguna,), the geographic reference of the zone expressed in geographical coordinates, or distance from a known point, or other clear identifier. Finally, the description of the fishing zone giving the nature of the sea bottom and the depth. The above should have helped an expert to draw and classify the zone. The above fishing zone classification and definition was taken as a temporary measure. The cumbersome way of collecting data was clear from the beginning, but it was considered useful not to delay data collection waiting for a solution that, though envisaged and expected, was not immediately available. In a second stage, a solution was found by introducing a generalised grid map with codified grids for all the region.


The fishing season is the period during which a given métier is practiced, in a certain fishing zone targeting a given species. It will be expressed by the list of months during which the métier is practiced.


  1. Field Work

Regarding the field work undertaken in connection with the inventory of artisanal fisheries, three approaches have been applied dictated by the facilities and resources available and accessible in the different countries:

The field work data collection group was made up six consultants recruited purposely. Each of them covered one country (or part of it) and prepared a detailed report on the field activity that should be consulted to get the direct figure of the work undertaken.


  1. The Status of the collected Information by Country (reviewed in November 2004)

The fieldwork was conducted in all countries with a different degree of coverage


In Morocco, the coverage was complete. Geographical data were initially missing, but finally they were entered in Rome using ArcView.


The data collection process was presented and explained, data collection started early January 2001.  The field work was completed in 2003. However only one part (25%) of the collected data has been memorized in the system. It is expected that, with the assistance of the statistical task force, all the data will be entered in the data base including the geographical data. This will be performed with the new tool developed in the database.


The field work in Tunisia was implemented in two steps. In February 2002 tha whole work was completed.


The database is complete. Geographical data are also complete. Métiers attributes are missing in the database but the information is contained in the descriptive files of the métiers and ports. The task force staff tried to extract elementary data from the descriptions (narrative).


Work is completed and allows for integration into the general database. However a few descriptions and photos are still missing.


Basic data on ports fleet consistency is available, but not detailed to be used for this task. available. Data from the Cilento area are complete and well refined. Data from part of Sicily are also available.


The data collection for métiers has been completed for the entire coastline. Data for the Languedoc-Roussillon area, up to Marseilles, were collected in a first run, the remaining part was completed after a year. The geographical data set has some gaps.


The data collection for métiers has been completed for the entire coastline Regarding geographical data, after the completion of the Baleares, Murcia, Andalousia and Catalunia are complete. However a few descriptions and photos are still missing.


  1. The ArtFiMed Data Base

A relational database management system (MS ACCESS) has been used to develop a user interface for data editing. The data model (Cf. entity-relation diagram) is designed to take in account :


Figure 1 - Application ARTFIMED - Conceptual data model


All the information is edited through a user interface: inventories and related data on ports and métiers (Cf. Figure 2). References tables (species, attributes) are also managed by the application. A specific GIS oriented module has been included in order to edit on a map support the fishing area exploited by a métier (Cf. Figure 3). Utilities for data filtering and exchange are also available.

Figure 2 - ARTFIMED application: Métier Management  

  Figure 3 - ARTFIMED application: edition of the fishing area of a métier

  1. CD-ROM
Application on CD-ROM

The CD-ROM presents all the Information collected aggregated by country but is also for comparative analysis at regional levels. 

This CD-ROM is constructed around a backbone static structure and data analysis results (graphs, tables, maps, etc..) are produced by a CD-Buider. Each time the ARTFIMED database is updated, the CD-builder authorize to produce in a very short time a new version of the CD. Last version has been published in September 2004.


Case studies

Case study 1 - Cilento artisanal fisheries (Italy)

Report  >>

Case study 2 - Etude intégrée de la pêche artisanale dans la lagune de Nador (Maroc)

Report  >>


What Next : Suggestions and Expectations

At National Level:


At Regional Level:




S.R. Coppola
FAO Fisheries Department,
Marine Resources Service (FIRM),
FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla,
00100 Rome, Italy

In order to achieve the objectives, three groups were set up. The three groups did not work independently, vice versa, all participated in the whole work bringing their own expertise and experiences.


Design, supervision, processing and analysis (Database, Web, GIS) group:


Field work and data collection group.

The field work data collection group was made up by six consultants, assisted by national researchers, purposively recruited. Each of them covered one country (or part of it) and prepared a detailed report on the field activity that should be consulted to get the direct impression of the work undertaken. They were:

  • Morocco: Mr. Alain Damiano ORSTOM , Abdelouhab Slimani, Mohammed Malouli Idrissi, Rachid Boutaib, Ali Rahmani, Abid Ziani and Said Semmoumy (INRH)

  • France: Mr. Alain Guillou and Mr. Valerio Crespi IFREMER (Sète)

  • Italy: Mr. Francesco Colloca - University of Rome - "La Sapienza". Mr. Leonardo Cannizzaro of IRMA - (Mazara del Vallo)

  • Malta: Mr. Juan Ignacio de Leiva (FAO-Copemed)and Mr. Charles Bussutil, Mr. Michael Darmanin and Mr. Matthew Camilleri (MAF)

  • Spain: Mr. Jose Antonio Alarcon (FAO-Copemed)

  • Tunisia: Mr. Sadok Ben Meriem, Mr. Houcine Gharbi and Mr. Jarboui Ohrman (INSTM)

  • Libya: Mr. Michel Lamboeuf (FAO - Copemed), Mr. Ahmed Amer Zentani and Mr. Abdallah Ben-Abdallah (MBRC)

  • Algeria: Mme Linda Kerzabi and Rachid Benayad- Ministère des Pêches


National focal points group.






Pêche artisanale dans la lagune de Nador : Exploitation et aspects socio-économiques (2002) - B. Abdellaoui, N. Elouamari, R. Houssa, M. Malouli Idrissi, Y. Zahri

Report in French
The evolution of the Artisanal fishery in Cilento, Italy. Case Study (2002) - F. Colloca, V. Crespi, R. Coppola Report in English
Inventory of Artisanal Fishery Communities in the Western-Central Mediterranean (2001) - S. Coppola Report in English
Inventario de la Pesca Artesanal en España Mediterránea (2000-2001) (2001) - J.A. Alarcón Urbistondo Report in Spanish

Artisanal Fisheries in Libya - Census of Fishing Vessels and Inventory of Artisanal Fishery Metiers (2000) - M. Lamboeuf

Document file(s)
Appui pour la réalisation d'un recensement sur la pêche artisanale en Méditerranée marocaine (1999) - A. Damiano Report in French
Situation actuelle de la pêche artisanale en Méditerranée marocaine. Résultats de l’enquête effectuée en Décembre 1998. (1999) - M. Malouli Idrissi, R. Houssa, A. Slimani, D. Essekelli Report in French
Frame survey on the distribution, composition and activity of the gulf of Lions small scale fishing fleet. (1999) - A. Guillou, V. Crespi Report in French
Artisanal fisheries in the Western Mediterranean - Malta Fisheries (1998) - J.I. de Leiva, C. Busuttil, M. Darmanin, M. Camilleri Report in English
La pêche artisanale en Algerie (2003) -M.A. Sahi, M. Bouaicha Report in French



A non- exhaustive review of the documents available about artisan fisheries in the Mediterranean is included here. This bibliography includes the grey litterature, that is to say, those national documents that in spite of not being published are considered interesting.

Abdessalem, F. - 1995 - La pêche côtière dans le région Nord de la Tunisie. Cahier CERES Série géographique ( 11 ): 173 - 202.

Addesso, G.; Seris, E. - 1998 - Mise en place d’un suivi de l’évolution de l’effort de pèche dans la réserve marine de Cerbère-Banyuls. Réalisation d’un état des lieux et mise au point méthodologique.- Rapport intermédiaire, Réserve Naturelle Marine Cerbère-Banyuls, 14p.,2 annexes.

Alegret, J.L. - 1988 - Les Confraries de Pescadors: la dimensión social de la pesca a Catalunya. Informe.

Aloui - Bejaoui, N. - 1995 - La pêche à la " charfia" à Kerkennah: importance et originalité d'une technique de pêche ancestrale. Cahier CERES Série géographique ( 11 ): 155 - 172.

Análisis crítico de los diferentes métodos utilizados para la pesca del coral - Conferencia, 1984 , Seco, P.

Anónimo - 1986 - Los bolicheros de Málaga (Un programa de recuperación de recursos pesqueros: aspectos históricos, administrativos y sociológicos).

Anónimo - 1988 - Jornadas sobre investigación de la pesca artesanal en el Mediterráneo español.

Andaloro, F.; Cavallaro, G. - 1982 - Test di resa su rete tramaglio nell’area dello Stretto di Messina. Naturalista sicil., 6 (Suppl.), 2: 421-428.

Arculeo, M.; Riggio, S. - 1984 - Dati preliminari sulla piccola pesca nel Golfo di Palermo. Nova Thalassia, 6 (Suppl.): 725

Ardizzone, G.; Bombace, G. - 1982 - Prime osservazioni sulla piccola pesca costiera lungo un litorale del Medio Tirreno. Naturalista sicil., S. IV, 6 (Suppl.), 2: 389-394.

Auteri, R.; Abella, A.; Baino, R. and Serena, F. - 1989 - Criteri gestionali applicati alla pesca del rossetto (Aphia minuta) nel Tirreno Settentrionale. Consorzio Regionale per l’Idrobiologia e Pesca (CRIP), 56 pp (mimeo).

Auteri, R.; Abella, A.; Baino, R. and Serena, F. - 1992 - La pesca del rossetto (Aphia minuta) in Toscana: stagioni di pesca 1990-91 e 1991-92. Rapporto finale. Consorzio Regionale per l’Idrobiologia e Pesca (CRIP), 65 pp (mimeo).

Auteri, R.; Abella, A.; Baino, R.; Donati, L.; Lazzaretti, A.; Righini, P.; Serena, F.; Silvestri, R.;

Voliani, A. and Zucchi, A. - 1996 - Studio per l’individuazione di un sistema razionale per lo sfruttamento del rossetto nell’alto Tirreno. Relazione per il triennio 1994-1996. Consorzio Regionale per l’Idrobiologia e Pesca (CRIP), 119 pp (mimeo).

Auteri, R.; Abella, A.; Baino, R.; Righini, P.; Serena, F.; Silvestri, R. and Voliani, A. - 1998 - La pesca del rossetto (Aphia minuta, Pisces, Gobidae) in Toscana. Biol. Mar. Medit., 5(3): 477-486.

Auteri, R.; Baino, R. and Abella, A. - 1999 - Biology and population dynamics of the transparent goby: a locally important resource of artisanal fisheries. Atti Convegno ICCOPS, Genova.

Baino, R., and Silvestri, R. - 1987 - Efficiency of a driftnet for grey mullets. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Medit. 30(5): 237.

Baino, R.; Voliani, A. and Silvestri, R. - 1988 - Fishing recruitment and exploitation onto a Donax trunculus stock off Tuscany Coast. Rapp. Comm. Int. Mer. Médit., 31(2): 22.

Baino, R.; Auteri, R. and Donati, L. - 1996 - Crescita e reclutamento alla pesca del rossetto. Biol. Mar. Medit., 3(1): 525-526.

Baino, R.; Righini, P. and Silvestri. - 1998 - Target species and CPUE of trammel, gillnet and combined net in sandy and rocky bottoms. Rapp. Comm. int. Mer. Médit., 35(2): 516-517.

Baro, J.; Núñez, J.C.; Ramos, F.; Camiñas, J.A. -1988 - La Pêche Artisanales dans la Mer d'Alboran: contribution à l'etude de la taille des Poissons capturés par différents engins.

Be Naceur, L. -1993 - Bilan systématique de l'état actuel de la pêche côtière en Tunisie et proposition d'un plan global d'intervention pour un développement futur. Cahier CERES Série géographique (9) : 11 - 22.

Biagi, F.; De Ranieri, S. - 1985 - Indagine sulla piccola pesca costiera nell’area limitrofa alla foce del fiume Arno. Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., Serie B, 92: 103-118.

Bradai, M.N; Ghorbel, M.; Bouain, A.; Jarboui, O; Wannes - Ghorbel , A. & Mnif, L. - 1995 - la pêche côtière dans le gouvernorat de Sfax. Aspect socio-économique et technique. Ecobiologie de certains poissons. Rapport pour le DGRST: 99 pp.

Bradai, M.N; Ghorbel, M. & Bouain, A. - 1995 - Aperçu sur l'activité de pêche dans le gouvernorat de Sfax. Cahier CERES Série géographique ( 11 ): 211 - 236.

Camiñas, J.A. - 1986 - Situación actual de las pesquerías artesanales en la región costera española del Mar de Alborán y del sistema de recogida de datos estadísticos para su evaluación- Informe.

Camiñas, J.A. ; Baro, J.; Díaz del Río, V. - 1988 - Pesquerías artesanales: especies capturadas con artes que actúan sobre el fondo. Relación con su hábitat natural Congreso.

Camiñas, J.A.; Baro, J.; Reina, J.A. - 1988 - Primeros resultados del estudio de las pesquerías artesanales del Mediterráneo andaluz - Informe.

Camiñas, J.A.; Lleonart, J.; Mas, J.; Oliver, P. -1989- Considérations méthodologiques sur la pêche aux petits métiers dans la Mediterranée espagnole.

Camiñas, J.A.; Ramos, F.; Núñez, J.C.; Baro, J. - 1990 - Catalogue Faunistique des especès capturées par la flotille artisanale dans la Mer d'Alboran (SE de l'Espagne). Cejpa, A.M. - 1983 -

La pèche aux petits métiers en Languedoc-Roussillon. Doc. CEPRALMAR, 89 p. (plus annexes, 154 p.).

Cejpa, A.M. - 1984 - La pèche aux petits métiers en Languedoc-Roussillon. La Pèche Maritime, juillet 1984, 392-397.

Cejpa, A.M. - 1986- Estimation de la production d’une catégorie de petits métiers du quartier de Sète de 1981 à 1983. Doc. CEPRALMAR.

Charbonnier, D. et Caddy, J. - 1986.- Rapport de la consultation du CGPM sur les méthodes  d’évaluation de la pèche des petits métiers dans la Méditerranée occidentale. Sète, France.- FAO Rapp. Pèches, 362: 155 p.

Cherif, A. - 1993 - La pêche côtière dans le Nord de la Tunisie: ressources halieutiques et problèmes d'exploitation l'exemple du gouvernorat de Bizerte. Cahier CERES Série géographique ( 9 ): 23 - 34.

Cherif, A. - 1995 - La pêche à Zarzis : Approche socio-économique et spatiale. Cahier CERES Série géographique ( 11 ): 239 - 262.

Collart, D.; Charbonnel E. - 1998 - Impact des récifs artificiels de Marseillan et d’Agde sur le milieu marin et la pêche professionnelle. Bilan du suivi 1996/1997. Contrat Conseil Régional Languedoc-Roussillon & Conseil Général de l’Hérault. CEGEL & GIS Posidonie publ., Fr. : 1-168.

De Metrio, G.; Bello, G.; Lenti, M.; Petrosino, G. and Sciscioli, V. - 1985 - L’attivita’ di pesca col tramaglio di fondo della marineria di Porto Cesareo (LE) negli anni 1978-1983. Nota I. Oebalia, vol. XI-2, N.S: 593-607.

De Pablo, F. - 1992 - Estudio sobre la pesca de la langosta, Palinurus elephas, en Menorca, 1990. Inf. Téc. Inst. Esp. Oceanog., 122: 45 pp.

Demestre, M.; Recasens, L.; Sánchez, P. -1989- Evolution de la pecherie pedant les vingt dernieres annees dans les lagunes du delta de l'Ebre (Catalogne, Espagne).

Duclerc, J. et Bertrand, J. -1993 - Variabilité spatiale et temporelle d’une pècherie au filet dans le golfe du Lion. Essai d’évaluation de l’impact d’un récif artificiel.- Rapport Interne IFREMER/DRV 93.003/RH-Sète.

Durand, J.R.; J. Lemoalle; Weber, J. - La Recherche Face á la Pêche Artisanales. Research and small-seale fisheries , pp. 205-213 Mediterráneo Ibérico.

Duval-Mellon, C. - 1987 - Impact halieutique des récifs artificiels du Languedoc-Roussillon. Rapport Interne IFREMER/DRV 87.016/RH Sète, 200p.

El Aiba, H. - 1995 - La pêche dans le gouvernorat de Medenine: Modernisation et problèmes d'exploitation des ressources. Cahier CERES Série géographique (11): 293 - 308.

El Abed, A. - 1997 - Spécificités de la pêche côtière en Tunisie. Rapport et documents de l'INSTM, 1996, 3 - 20.

El Abed, A. - 1999 - La pêche côtière en Tunisie: techniques utilisées et gestion durable: Accepté dans le bulletin de l'INSTM, en cours.

FAO - Fisheries Report, nº 362: 75-76 Mar de Alborán FAO - Rapport sur les pêches. Rapport de la cinquième Consultation technique, nº 395: 65-74 Mar de Alborán.

Farrugio, H. and Le Corre, G. - 1984 - Stratégie d’échantillonnage des pêches aux " petits métiers" en Méditerranée. Rapp.Etude IFREMER-CEE XIV-B-1,83/2/M09 P1 : 120 p.

Farrugio, H. and Le Corre, G. - 1985 - Les pêcheries de lagune en Méditerranée. Définition d’une stratégie d’évaluation. Rapp.Etude IFREMER-CEE XIV-B-1,84/2/M03 P1 : 251 p.

Farrugio, H. et Le Corre, G. - 1987 - Etude pour une gestion optimale des pècheries démersales interactives dans le golfe du Lion.- Rapp. Conv. CEE/IFREMER, 86-1210440-DRV-87-015/RH/Sète.

Farrugio, H. et Le Corre, G. - 1991 - Recherche halieutique et pêches artisanales interactives en Méditerranée française : caractéristiques et perspectives d’aménagement. In: La Recherche Face à la Pèche Artisanale. Symp. Int. ORSTOM-IFREMER, Montpellier France, 3-7 juillet 1989, J. R.

Durand, J. Lemoalle et J. Weber (Eds), Paris, ORSTOM, 1991, t. 1: 349-355.

Farrugio, H. and Le Corre, G. - 1993 - A sampling strategy and methodology for assessment and monitoring of Mediterranean small scale fishery. Sci.Mar., 57(2-3) : 131-137.

Farrugio, H. - 1989 - Artisanat et pèche en Méditerranée. Evolution et état de la Recherche.- In: La Recherche Face à la Pèche Artisanale. Symp. Int. ORSTOM-IFREMER, Montpellier France, 3-7 juillet 1989, J. R. Durand, J. Lemoalle et J. Weber (Eds), Paris, ORSTOM, 1991, t. 1: 143- 156.

García, M. , Massó C. - 1986 - Modelo de explotación por buceo del coral rojo (Corallium rubrum, L.), 0074-0195.

García, M. - 1987 - Arrecifes artificiales: Una técnica de potenciaión pesquera, MAPA , Jornadas sobre Economía y Sociología de las Comunidades Pesqueras Mar Catalán.

Iglesias, M. y J. Martorell - 1992 - La pesquería de Góbidos en las Islas Baleares, 1992. Inf. Téc. Inst. Esp. Oceanog., 116: 18 pp.

Iglesias, M.; Massutí, E.; Reñones, O. and B. Morales-Nin - 1994 - Three small-scale fisheries based on the island of Majorca (NW Mediterranean). Soc. Hist. Nat. Balears, 37: 35-58.

Iglesias, M. - 1995 - Biología y pesca de Aphia minuta en la isla de Mallorca. Ph. D., Universidad de las Islas Baleares. 314 pp.

Jouvenel, J.Y. et Bachet, F. - 1995 - Aménagement de la bande cotière de la Cote Bleue. Programme de suivi des peuplements ichtyologiques de la réserve de Carro.- Rapport du Parc Régional Marin de la Cote Bleue et de la DIREN PACA, 40p.

Le Corre, G.; E. Rosecchi and J.L. Bigot. - 1990 - Enquête cadre sur la pêche artisanale en Région Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur. Contrat IFREMER — Conseil Régional Provence Alpes Côte d’Azur. Rapport interne IFREMER. DRV -90.13 RH/Sète : 144 pp.

Llabrés, M. y Martorell, J. 1984 - La pesquería de artes menores en Baleares. Comunidad Autónoma de las Islas Baleares. 270 pp. (mimeo).

Lleonart, J.; P. Sánchez - 1986 - Artes menores en Cataluña: estado actual y perspectivas, FAO, Fisheries Report nº 362: 77-78.

Marinaro, J.Y. - 1992 - Etude de la pèche cotière dans le quartier maritime de Port-Vendres (1990-1991). Premier rapport annuel.- Université de Perpignan, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, 56 p.

Marinaro, J.Y. - 1994 - Etude de la pèche cotière dans le quartier maritime de Port-Vendres (1993).- Rapport annuel.- Université de Perpignan, Laboratoire de Biologie Marine, 30 p.

Marty, F. - 1991 - Mémoire des savoirs faire des pècheurs de Gruissan.- Edition du CPIE des étangs du Narbonnais, 126 p.

Massuti, E. - 1997 - Biology of Coryphaena hippurus in the Western Mediterranean. Ph. D., Universidad de las Islas Baleares. 169 pp

Ortiz, A.; Massó, C.; Soriano, C.; Lima., J. - 1986 - La barra italiana como arte de pesca del coral rojo, Corallium rubrum (L.), en el Mar de Alborán (SE de España) - Revista. Publicaciones del MAPA - Pesca artesanal, recursos pesqueros, Mar de Alboran, pp. 1-168 .

Mar de Alborán Reñones, O.; Massutí, E.; Morales-Nin, B. - 1992 - Primeras experiencias de captura y mantenimiento en cautividad de llampuga (Coryphaena hippurus, L.) en Mallorca. Rey,

H. 1989 - Etude économique de la pèche aux petits métiers en Languedoc-Roussillon.- Rapport contrat Ministère de la Mer / Centre d’Etude de projets, Montpellier, 210 p.

Romdhan, M.S. 1993 - Techniques et engins de pêche utilisés sur la côte septentrionale de la Tunisie. Cahier CERES Série géographique ( 9 ): 195 - 210.

Rompdhan, M.S - 1995 - la pêche dans le région de Zarzis: ports, flottille et engin de pêche. Cahier CERES Série géographique ( 11 ): 133 - 154.

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